LIFE STYLE

Monthly Archives: DECEMBER 2016


You'll have to wait longer than you thought to say goodbye to 2016
29.12.16 - TEAM PT
You'll have to wait longer than you thought to say goodbye to 2016



If you are one of those people who can’t wait for 2016 to be over, then bad news – you’ll have to wait a second longer.
 
Clocks around the world will add one additional second to the final minute of 2016 to compensate for Earth’s rotation on its axis, which has actually slowed slightly.
 
On December 31, 2016, a "leap second" will be added to the world's clocks at 23 hours, 59 minutes and 59 seconds Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), which corresponds to 5:29:59 am Indian Standard Time on January 1.

UTC is computed in Paris, France, at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. 

Historically, time was based on the mean rotation of the Earth relative to celestial bodies and the second was defined in this reference frame. 

However, the invention of atomic clocks defined a much more precise "atomic" timescale and a second that is independent of Earth's rotation.
 
Measurements show that the Earth, on average, runs slow compared to atomic time, at about 1.5 to 2 milliseconds per day. 

Scientists have determined that after roughly 500 to 750 days, the difference between Earth rotation time and atomic time would be about one second. 
 
Since 1972, 26 additional leap seconds have been added at intervals varying from six months to seven years, with the most recent being inserted on June 30, 2015.
 
The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service, based at the Paris Observatory in France, tracks the Earth’s rotation and announces when a leap second is needed roughly six months in advance.

However, leap seconds can cause problems for communication networks, financial systems and other applications that rely on precise timing and has to be programmed into computers to avoid mistakes.

It is also possible for a second to be removed from the UTC (Universal Co-ordinated Time) timescale, although this has never happened.




[home] 1-2 of 2


Comment

your name*

email address*

comments*
You may use these HTML tags:<p> <u> <i> <b> <strong> <del> <code> <hr> <em> <ul> <li> <ol> <span> <div>

verification code*
 



Antiseptic used in WWI could hold key to treating superbugs,antibiotic resistance and Common Cold
03.12.16 - TEAM PT
Antiseptic used in WWI could hold key to treating superbugs,antibiotic resistance and Common Cold



An antiseptic used to treat wounds during World War I that has been out of use for more than 50 years could help fight superbugs and prevent future pandemics, Melbourne researchers have said.
 
The simple antiseptic, made from coal tar, was replaced by penicillin after the war, and fights both viral and bacterial infections in an entirely different way - one that could prevent pathogens from mutating to outsmart our medications.
 
Called Acriflavine, the antiseptic is derived from coal tar, and comes in the form of a reddish brown or orange powder.

The team from the Hudson Institute of Medical Research found that pre-treating people with Acriflavine protected cells against the common cold by triggering an anti-viral immune response.
 
"We have shown for the first time that Acriflavine binding to cellular DNA could activate the host immune system, unleashing a powerful immune response on a potentially broad range of bacteria,” said Michael Gantier of the Hudson Institute, co-author of the study published in the journal Nucleic Acids Research.

Acriflavine was first identified as an antiseptic by German scientists in 1912 and was widely used as a topical antiseptic on wounds during the Great War. It was also used to treat everything from gonorrhoea to urinary infections before being supplanted by penicillin.

"Early scientific literature notes its antibacterial qualities in test tubes, but its very effective action on the skin has never been fully defined,” Gantier said.
 
"It's very cheap to make, it's not something you would make if you were a private company trying to make money on drugs."
 
"Our study indicates that acriflavine stimulates the host immune system, rather than simply killing bacteria, suggesting it wouldn’t be as likely to drive mutations in bacteria – showing a safeguard against resistance and a potential alternative to current antibacterial drugs."
 
Discoveries such as Acriflavine could help fight future pandemics, Gantier said. 

"So we think that for patients who are at risk, we could potentially provide them with this drug in a form like a puffer — a bit like you use Ventolin," he said.

Gantier said those who were pre-treated with the antiseptic had an advantage over infections.

"So when they've got a head start for when the infection kicks in, they are better off because they've already been primed and they will be able to fight better," he said.

"We can apply that to people who are resistant to every treatment and that could still have some benefit for them.

The next step is to set up pre-clinical models to test how well acriflavine mobilises the immune system in more virulent strains of infection.
 
The findings, published in the journal Nucleic Acids Research, reveal the healing power of the antiseptic to be far greater than realised.
 
As well as fighting the common cold and influenza, it could be useful in containing the spread of viral outbreaks including SARS, Zika and Ebola.

And because the overlooked antiseptic works by supercharging the body's immune system, it could also prove a valuable treatment option for antibiotic-resistant superbugs, which have been forecast to kill 10 million people by 2050.




[home] 1-2 of 2


Comment

your name*

email address*

comments*
You may use these HTML tags:<p> <u> <i> <b> <strong> <del> <code> <hr> <em> <ul> <li> <ol> <span> <div>

verification code*
 







MOST VISITED
YOU MAY LIKE

TOPIC CLOUD

TAGS CLOUD

ARCHIVE



Copyright © 2016-2017







NEWS LETTER