EDUCATION
Punjab govt invites applications for PPSC Chairman and members
27.06.19 - Team PT
Punjab govt invites applications for PPSC Chairman and members



Chandigarh, June 27, The Punjab Government has invited applications to fill one vacancy of Chairman, one vacancy of Member (Non official) and one vacancy of Member (official), Punjab Public Service Commission (PPSC). 

The last date for submitting the applications to the office of Secretary to Government of Punjab, Department of Personnel (P.P.-3 Branch), Room No. 6, 6th floor, Punjab Civil Secretariat, Sector 1, Chandigarh, is 19-07-2019 by 5 pm. 

Divulging the details, a spokesman said that Punjab Government has decided to invite the applications of eminent persons of impeccable integrity, high calibre and administrative experience. 

He said the applicant while forwarding his/her own name or recommending another person's name with necessary details, must clearly elucidate the pendency of any civil, criminal, administrative or any other proceedings that may have bearing on his/her integrity and character, and should have held office for atleast 10 years either under the Government of India or under the State Government. 
 

Disclaimer : PunjabToday.in and other platforms of the Punjab Today group strive to include views and opinions from across the entire spectrum, but by no means do we agree with everything we publish. Our efforts and editorial choices consistently underscore our authors' right to the freedom of speech. However, it should be clear to all readers that individual authors are responsible for the information, ideas or opinions in their articles, and very often, these do not reflect the views of PunjabToday.in or other platforms of the group. Punjab Today does not assume any responsibility or liability for the views of authors whose work appears here.

_______________________________________________________________

Most shared Punjab Today articles:
 

KYUN KE HUM HAIN HINDUSTANI

Three Women of 1984

 FROM 1984 TO BARGARI - Hurt & angry, we’ve tried rage, anger. Did we miss karuna?   

REVISITING 1984 – RIOT AROUND A POLE     

KARTARPUR SAHIB: A CLARION CALL FOR PEACE IN AN AGE OF CYNICISM

If it could happen to Arun Shourie, imagine what could they do to you?

Healers & Predators – The Doctor is In, & is very corrupt

Amarinder, Badals, AAP — Every party in Punjab is now an Akali Dal

Welcome to 1947. Happy Independence Day. Would you like to step out?

In Pakistan, a donkey pays for democracy – bleeding, its nostrils ripped apart

WOOING THE PANTH: Amarinder a little less Congressy, Akali Dal a little more saffron

"Captain Amarinder Singh ji” and "Rahul”: Reading Sign Language In A Relationship

The Comrade In Punjab - Lost, Irrelevant, Asleep, Even Bored!

WATERS ROYALTY - The Loot that Rajasthan Committed

AMARINDER GOVT's LOVE FOR FARMERS, AND MY DAD's FOR HIS SCOOTER

OF SUNNY KID & HORSE SENSE: The Punjab-Punjab Ties 
A SAFFRON JOURNEY VIA CANADA

TRUDEAU VISIT AND RIGHT-WING MEDIA MACHINE

OF NIRMAL SINGH'S EYES 

Mr. CHIEF MINISTER, PLEASE CALL OFF JANUARY 7 FUNCTION
BAD, BAD WOMAN! 

MR PRESIDENT, PLEASE TAKE BACK HIS GALLANTRY MEDAL

 

_______________________________________________________________


Punjab Today believes in serious, engaging, narrative journalism at a time when mainstream media houses seem to have given up on long-form writing and news television has blurred or altogether erased the lines between news and slapstick entertainment. We at Punjab Today believe that readers such as yourself appreciate cerebral journalism, and would like you to hold us against the best international industry standards. Brickbats are welcome even more than bouquets, though an occasional pat on the back is always encouraging. Good journalism can be a lifeline in these uncertain times worldwide. You can support us in myriad ways. To begin with, by spreading word about us and forwarding this reportage. Stay engaged.

— Team PT






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Comment by: Vikramjit singh

How to fill my form

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Comment by: Mr. Pawan Kumar

I am not getting the application form for applying for the post of Member PPSC advertised on 27/06/2019.

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University Education in India
A University should be a place of light, of liberty, and of learning
23.06.19 - Ramjot Sodhi
A University should be a place of light, of liberty, and of learning



THE WRITTEN history of University education in India dates back to ancient times when the leading centres of learning like Takshashila (seventh century B.C.), Nalanda (fifth century A.D.), Vikramashila (eight century A.D.) etc. flourished and attracted scholars from various countries. The brightest minds of the World flocked towards India for receiving higher education. Students like Kautilya, Chandragupta, Huan Tsang (China), Itsing (China), Panini, Charaka, Atisa Dipankara etc. attended these Institutes. Universities in India led in research in diverse fields including Philosophy, Economics, Grammar, Vedas, Astrology, Medicine, Ayurveda, Mathematics, Politics, Art of War, Law, Music, Dance, Psychology, Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Geography, and Geology etc. India was a hub of Higher education for the World.
----------
Similarly, the Seminars held in the state universities are of inferior quality, in which hardly any new proposals are made or any relevant papers are presented.
----------
However, over the past few centuries, the University education in India has lagged far behind. Initially, due to the demolition of the prestigious Universities by invaders like Toramana, Bakhtiyar Khilji etc.; then, the role British colonists played in modifying the nature and type of higher education imparted in India; later, due to the inefficient governance and the political interference in the Institutions in independent India. The present lot of state Universities (most, if not all) is facing several problems, both in terms of students and the faculty.

In a typical state University, barring a few counted exceptions, the quality of faculty, especially who are a product of Indian university system, has remained very poor. Persons, who had been mediocre students, end up being second-rate lecturers/professors. Though the process of recruitment of faculty has improved with compulsory tests like the UGC-NET (University Grants Commission-National Eligibility Test), but these measures have proved inadequate to raise the bar, as still the emphasis has been on testing the ability to swot multiplicity of facts over the conceptual clarity of the candidates.

The Faculty in Universities indulges in playing politics against each other. They keep looking for opportunities of pulling others down to raise him/herself up the ladder. Like in other government departments, faculty employs all possible tactics like buttering the Head of the Department, pleasing the Vice-Chancellor etc. to get promotions or seek other favors over any performance based promotions and entitlements. At the same time, the faculty is also kept engaged in tasks like compulsory election duties during polls. In some instances, they are also appointed as wardens of hostels to look after the day-to-day affairs. They are also expected to organize cultural events in the University or individual departments etc., mainly at the cost of their research and teaching.

In the state Universities, the research quality is quite poor. Plagiarism is not uncommon. Recently, UGC notified to assess the quality of PhD theses for doctoral degrees awarded in the last decade, in the light of the degrading quality of research in India. Some professors, if not all, who examine the PhD theses, bestow the doctoral degrees to candidates with run-of-the-mill research by arguing that if she will make the scholar to re-work on her thesis, then in future, with an aim of taking vengeance, that scholar’s guide might reject the work of her scholar, hence, compromising the research in their attempt to satisfy each other’s egos.

Similarly, the Seminars held in the state universities are of inferior quality, in which hardly any new proposals are made or any relevant papers are presented. Such seminars remind one of the mid-20th century era, when scholars like David Easton had to proclaim that the Seminars in American Universities were of no benefit as they were unable to offer solutions to the contemporary problems of the society and he gave way to Behavioral Movement, which revolutionized the discipline of Political Science. Similarly, the Indian University education system needs a revamp, so that their research could help in solving the problems of the society.
----------
Hands-on practice in the universities is only in the name as are the practicals and trainings in laboratories.
----------
The University system has become a factory production system, especially the Engineering wings. The entire focus for the students has been to get marks with hardly any concern about learning outcomes. The students in the Universities are prepared to become, in terms of Sanjaya Baru, ‘desk-bound intellectual clerks’ over any scientists or intellectuals or even ordinary responsible citizens of the country. The numbers of Nobel Prizes, Booker prizes Indians have won in the last seventy two years of independent India reflect the prevailing state of affairs.

As trained from the beginning, most of the students start cramming the syllabus two days before the exam and come out with flying colors, without even properly understanding the concepts, and unfortunately, they forget most of the crammed part within a few days after the exam. The answer copies are still evaluated by prioritizing the length of the answer or the number of pages the student has filled over the quality of the content.

Hands-on practice in the universities is only in the name as are the practicals and trainings in laboratories. Theses are bought from the market like any other commodity, to be presented to anyhow obtain the degree. Also, in some Universities, corruption is a commonplace to clear the exams by cheating or to employ some other ‘jugaad’.

So, in the end, looking at the sorry state of affairs, some questions need urgent replies like – Can India reap the benefits of its demographic dividend whose window is shrinking fast? Can India get on to the track of higher rate of growth when its youth is improperly trained to face the challenges of the market? Can India stop the brain-drain to ensure that the best Indian minds work for India’s development and not for USA, Canada or Australia's?

Though successive governments have tried to fix the university system but the pace and the scale of reforms have fallen too short of what is required. The ‘New Education Policy’ of 2019 might help in setting the house in order and could bring life to the comatose university system but if drastic measures are not taken immediately, then it would be too late to repent.
 
 
 
Ramjot Sodhi is studying Political Science at Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar
 
 
 

Disclaimer : PunjabToday.in and other platforms of the Punjab Today group strive to include views and opinions from across the entire spectrum, but by no means do we agree with everything we publish. Our efforts and editorial choices consistently underscore our authors' right to the freedom of speech. However, it should be clear to all readers that individual authors are responsible for the information, ideas or opinions in their articles, and very often, these do not reflect the views of PunjabToday.in or other platforms of the group. Punjab Today does not assume any responsibility or liability for the views of authors whose work appears here.

_______________________________________________________________

Most shared Punjab Today articles:
 

KYUN KE HUM HAIN HINDUSTANI

Three Women of 1984

 FROM 1984 TO BARGARI - Hurt & angry, we’ve tried rage, anger. Did we miss karuna?   

REVISITING 1984 – RIOT AROUND A POLE     

KARTARPUR SAHIB: A CLARION CALL FOR PEACE IN AN AGE OF CYNICISM

If it could happen to Arun Shourie, imagine what could they do to you?

Healers & Predators – The Doctor is In, & is very corrupt

Amarinder, Badals, AAP — Every party in Punjab is now an Akali Dal

Welcome to 1947. Happy Independence Day. Would you like to step out?

In Pakistan, a donkey pays for democracy – bleeding, its nostrils ripped apart

WOOING THE PANTH: Amarinder a little less Congressy, Akali Dal a little more saffron

"Captain Amarinder Singh ji” and "Rahul”: Reading Sign Language In A Relationship

The Comrade In Punjab - Lost, Irrelevant, Asleep, Even Bored!

WATERS ROYALTY - The Loot that Rajasthan Committed

AMARINDER GOVT's LOVE FOR FARMERS, AND MY DAD's FOR HIS SCOOTER

OF SUNNY KID & HORSE SENSE: The Punjab-Punjab Ties 
A SAFFRON JOURNEY VIA CANADA

TRUDEAU VISIT AND RIGHT-WING MEDIA MACHINE

OF NIRMAL SINGH'S EYES 

Mr. CHIEF MINISTER, PLEASE CALL OFF JANUARY 7 FUNCTION
BAD, BAD WOMAN! 

MR PRESIDENT, PLEASE TAKE BACK HIS GALLANTRY MEDAL

 

_______________________________________________________________


Punjab Today believes in serious, engaging, narrative journalism at a time when mainstream media houses seem to have given up on long-form writing and news television has blurred or altogether erased the lines between news and slapstick entertainment. We at Punjab Today believe that readers such as yourself appreciate cerebral journalism, and would like you to hold us against the best international industry standards. Brickbats are welcome even more than bouquets, though an occasional pat on the back is always encouraging. Good journalism can be a lifeline in these uncertain times worldwide. You can support us in myriad ways. To begin with, by spreading word about us and forwarding this reportage. Stay engaged.

— Team PT





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UGC NET 2019
NTA to release UGC NET 2019 admit card on Monday
25.05.19 - TEAM PT
NTA to release UGC NET 2019 admit card on Monday



The National Testing Agency (NTA) will soon to release the admit cards for the UGC National Eligibility Test (NET) on Monday. Therefore, candidates should keep their eyes on the official website to download the hall tickets of UGC NET June exam.
 
As per the official notification, NTA will release the UGC NET June exam admit cards on 27th May. NTA conducts the UGC NET exam twice in the year i.e. in June & December. UGC NET exam is conducted to determine the eligibility for Assistant Professor and for Junior Research Fellowship in Indian universities or colleges.
 
All the candidates can download the admit cads from the official website of ntanet.nic.in . The NTA UGC NET 2019 will be conducted on June 20, 21, 2019 and June 24 to 28, 2019. The result will be declared on July 15.
 
Candidates who are preparing for the exam should know that NTA has updated the syllabus of NTA NET exam.

Earlier, a notification issued by NTA read, "The University Grants Commission has updated the syllabus of all NET subjects (including Paper-I on General Awareness). The updated syllabus of UGC-NET (Applicable for upcoming exams from June 2019 onwards) is available on UGC-NET website ugcnetonline.in.
------
Candidates who are preparing for the exam should know that NTA has updated the syllabus of NTA NET exam.
------
Moreover, the syllabus of paper 1 of UGC-NET exam GENERAL PAPER ON TEACHING & RESEARCH APTITUDE has also been updated. This paper is common for all candidates and is compulsory for every candidate to qualify.
 
Steps to download UGC NET Admit Cards 2019:

1. Open the official website of NTA at ntanet.ac.in
2. Check out the link for UGC NET June exam admit card
3. Enter registration id and password to download your hall ticket
4. Click on Ok
5. After details submission, admit card will appear on the official website
6. Download UGC NET admit card
7. Take a print out for future references

Candidates should carry these important documents to UGC NET June exam:

1. Don’t forget to carry UGC NET admit card
2. Carry passport size photograph
3. Take your valid photo Ids viz PAN card/Driving License/Voter ID/Passport/Aadhaar Card
 
 

Disclaimer : PunjabToday.in and other platforms of the Punjab Today group strive to include views and opinions from across the entire spectrum, but by no means do we agree with everything we publish. Our efforts and editorial choices consistently underscore our authors' right to the freedom of speech. However, it should be clear to all readers that individual authors are responsible for the information, ideas or opinions in their articles, and very often, these do not reflect the views of PunjabToday.in or other platforms of the group. Punjab Today does not assume any responsibility or liability for the views of authors whose work appears here.

_______________________________________________________________

Most shared Punjab Today articles:
 

KYUN KE HUM HAIN HINDUSTANI

Three Women of 1984

 FROM 1984 TO BARGARI - Hurt & angry, we’ve tried rage, anger. Did we miss karuna?   

REVISITING 1984 – RIOT AROUND A POLE     

KARTARPUR SAHIB: A CLARION CALL FOR PEACE IN AN AGE OF CYNICISM

If it could happen to Arun Shourie, imagine what could they do to you?

Healers & Predators – The Doctor is In, & is very corrupt

Amarinder, Badals, AAP — Every party in Punjab is now an Akali Dal

Welcome to 1947. Happy Independence Day. Would you like to step out?

In Pakistan, a donkey pays for democracy – bleeding, its nostrils ripped apart

WOOING THE PANTH: Amarinder a little less Congressy, Akali Dal a little more saffron

"Captain Amarinder Singh ji” and "Rahul”: Reading Sign Language In A Relationship

The Comrade In Punjab - Lost, Irrelevant, Asleep, Even Bored!

WATERS ROYALTY - The Loot that Rajasthan Committed

AMARINDER GOVT's LOVE FOR FARMERS, AND MY DAD's FOR HIS SCOOTER

OF SUNNY KID & HORSE SENSE: The Punjab-Punjab Ties 
A SAFFRON JOURNEY VIA CANADA

TRUDEAU VISIT AND RIGHT-WING MEDIA MACHINE

OF NIRMAL SINGH'S EYES 

Mr. CHIEF MINISTER, PLEASE CALL OFF JANUARY 7 FUNCTION
BAD, BAD WOMAN! 

MR PRESIDENT, PLEASE TAKE BACK HIS GALLANTRY MEDAL

 

_______________________________________________________________


Punjab Today believes in serious, engaging, narrative journalism at a time when mainstream media houses seem to have given up on long-form writing and news television has blurred or altogether erased the lines between news and slapstick entertainment. We at Punjab Today believe that readers such as yourself appreciate cerebral journalism, and would like you to hold us against the best international industry standards. Brickbats are welcome even more than bouquets, though an occasional pat on the back is always encouraging. Good journalism can be a lifeline in these uncertain times worldwide. You can support us in myriad ways. To begin with, by spreading word about us and forwarding this reportage. Stay engaged.

— Team PT




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"M. Phil. without first having an M.A.?"
Do you also want to know about RaGa’s missing M.A.?
15.04.19 - Dorab R Sopariwala
Do you also want to know about RaGa’s missing M.A.?



IN THE LAST couple of general elections, there has been a controversy about the educational qualifications and financial assets of Congress President Rahul Gandhi and Minister for Textiles Smriti Irani, who are due to face off for the second time in Amethi in a few weeks.

Since Rahul Gandhi and Smriti Irani have already filed their nominations there, the full-blown scrutiny of their affidavits, including their educational qualifications, has begun. Normally, it is the political small fry that take on the task of challenging these qualifications. But this time, as far as Rahul Gandhi is concerned, the big, political howitzers have entered the fray. Finance Minister Arun Jaitley and the irrepressible Dr. Subramanian Swamy are taking pot shots at the "missing" M.A. of Rahul Gandhi; "How do you get an M. Phil. without first having an M.A.?"

But they have slipped up badly this time by not doing their homework. One can perhaps forgive them as neither is probably aware of the eccentricities of Oxford and Cambridge universities as neither Mr. Jaitley nor Dr. Swamy has been through the English higher educational system. The correct answer, as Sherlock Holmes would have said is: "Elementary, my dear Watson."

Oxford and Cambridge universities (unlike other universities in England and around the world) do NOT award M.A. as a degree by examination. It is a degree that is awarded WITHOUT an examination to a holder of a bachelor's degree (on application and payment of a fee) a few years after the B.A. If I recall correctly, you have to keep your nose clean during those post-B.A. years. Don't defraud anybody; don't beat up anybody - stay clear of the law. I assume that establishes your credentials as a 'gentleman' and fit to take part in the governance of the university! In my time, you had to pay the princely sum of seven pounds to get the M.A. degree when the time came. So, M.A. (Oxon) and M.A. (Cantab) degrees are a complete farce.

When I returned to India after studying and working in England, my first boss had an M.A. (Cantab) in his CV. I said to him: "Arrey, yaar, you can't do this to me. You have a faltu Master's degree, while I had to slog 18 hours a day for mine." But no one bothered and I am sure he has not told anyone until today that it is a 'bought' degree.

The only way to get an asli post-graduate qualification in these two universities is to study for degrees such as M. Phil, D. Phil, Ph. D, etc.

Why would you want an M.A. (Cantab) or M.A.(Oxon)? To show off to your friends? Yes. The holder of the M.A. knows that this is just a farce - but the others don't!!

But more importantly, the possession of an MA (or M Phil or D Phil. or any other post-graduate degree) makes one a member of the University Senate and allows one, among other things, to vote in university elections. For instance, they can vote in the election of the Chancellor - yes, the Chancellor is elected by members of the Senate, though elections for Chancellor are normally uncontested.

Probably not many are aware that, in 1950, Jawaharlal Nehru's name was proposed without his consent by some dons for election as Chancellor of Cambridge University. He felt he could not devote time to this position because he was already the Prime Minister of India! He wanted his name withdrawn but that was procedurally not possible,and a nominal election was held. I am sure many M.A.s voted. Panditji lost but the votes for the contestants were not disclosed. The winner was Marshal of the Royal Air Force Lord Tedder, the former Deputy Supreme Allied Commander under Eisenhower.

So now you know what an Oxford or a Cambridge M.A. is worth - a handful of silver and the paper it is printed on.

(Dorab R Sopariwala is Editorial Adviser at NDTV and writes on political and economic issues. Courtesy: NDTV)
 

Disclaimer : PunjabToday.in and other platforms of the Punjab Today group strive to include views and opinions from across the entire spectrum, but by no means do we agree with everything we publish. Our efforts and editorial choices consistently underscore our authors' right to the freedom of speech. However, it should be clear to all readers that individual authors are responsible for the information, ideas or opinions in their articles, and very often, these do not reflect the views of PunjabToday.in or other platforms of the group. Punjab Today does not assume any responsibility or liability for the views of authors whose work appears here.

_______________________________________________________________

Most shared Punjab Today articles:
 

KYUN KE HUM HAIN HINDUSTANI

Three Women of 1984

 FROM 1984 TO BARGARI - Hurt & angry, we’ve tried rage, anger. Did we miss karuna?   

REVISITING 1984 – RIOT AROUND A POLE     

KARTARPUR SAHIB: A CLARION CALL FOR PEACE IN AN AGE OF CYNICISM

If it could happen to Arun Shourie, imagine what could they do to you?

Healers & Predators – The Doctor is In, & is very corrupt

Amarinder, Badals, AAP — Every party in Punjab is now an Akali Dal

Welcome to 1947. Happy Independence Day. Would you like to step out?

In Pakistan, a donkey pays for democracy – bleeding, its nostrils ripped apart

WOOING THE PANTH: Amarinder a little less Congressy, Akali Dal a little more saffron

"Captain Amarinder Singh ji” and "Rahul”: Reading Sign Language In A Relationship

The Comrade In Punjab - Lost, Irrelevant, Asleep, Even Bored!

WATERS ROYALTY - The Loot that Rajasthan Committed

AMARINDER GOVT's LOVE FOR FARMERS, AND MY DAD's FOR HIS SCOOTER

OF SUNNY KID & HORSE SENSE: The Punjab-Punjab Ties 
A SAFFRON JOURNEY VIA CANADA

TRUDEAU VISIT AND RIGHT-WING MEDIA MACHINE

OF NIRMAL SINGH'S EYES 

Mr. CHIEF MINISTER, PLEASE CALL OFF JANUARY 7 FUNCTION
BAD, BAD WOMAN! 

MR PRESIDENT, PLEASE TAKE BACK HIS GALLANTRY MEDAL

 

_______________________________________________________________


Punjab Today believes in serious, engaging, narrative journalism at a time when mainstream media houses seem to have given up on long-form writing and news television has blurred or altogether erased the lines between news and slapstick entertainment. We at Punjab Today believe that readers such as yourself appreciate cerebral journalism, and would like you to hold us against the best international industry standards. Brickbats are welcome even more than bouquets, though an occasional pat on the back is always encouraging. Good journalism can be a lifeline in these uncertain times worldwide. You can support us in myriad ways. To begin with, by spreading word about us and forwarding this reportage. Stay engaged.

— Team PT
 




[1] 2 3 4 5 6 7 ... 21 [next]1-5 of 101


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Vice President Naidu attending Jallianwala centenary amounts to disrespect: Prof Chaman Lal
13.04.19 - Chaman Lal
Vice President Naidu attending Jallianwala centenary amounts to disrespect: Prof Chaman Lal



HISTORY IS SAID to repeat itself, first as a tragedy and then as a farce. This is happening hundred years later in case of Jallianwala Bagh centenary celebrations also. While British Parliament has discussed this event as matter raised by Indian background Parliament members and Prime Minister Theresa May had to respond by ‘deeply regretting’ the incident, but not ‘apologising’ for the British colonial Raj’s atrocities on Indian people.
 
While we expect British colonial past to be condemned by the present British rulers, what is our response to this monumental event of the century, which became a perennial phrase for all the atrocities committed and being committed by any ruler-British and later ‘Desi’ rulers of various hues-be it Congress or now BJP! ‘One more Jallianwala Bagh’ phrase has been used for any atrocity committed by police or armed forces, sometimes used even farcically also, as for killing of a student, farmer, worker or common man. Not that the killing even of a single person is justified, but the use of such phrase as ‘one more Jallianwala’ reduces the monumental tragedy of Jallianwala Bagh to a convenient political jugglery. 
-------------
When there is talk of apology, present British rulers feared the demand for compensation will arise with apology. And why should the demand not arise? Few years ago, a British court has ruled British Government to pay millions of pounds to survivors or decedents of Mau Mau movement.
-------------
The background of Jallianwala Bagh goes back to 1918, when Lord Chelmsford formed a formed a sedition committee led by Lord Sidney Rowlatt, this committee discussed the increasing revolutionary activitiesin Punjab and Bengal especially, as Ghadar party movement erupted in 1915. Sedition committee report was submitted in April 1918 and based on that report a new oppressive act-The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes act of 1919, popularly known as Rowlatt act or Black act was passed in Imperial legislative council in Delhi on 10th March 1919, resisted by Indian members stoutly.
 
It created strong reaction among Indian leaders of that time and Mahatma Gandhi, who was shaping into a national leader gave a call for strike on 30th March, 1919. As the notice for strike was considered short, it was postponed to 6th April to be observed as national strike. Still on 30th March also, strike was observed in many places including Delhi, where some violence took place and in retaliation much worse police atrocities too took place. In that year Congress party was planning to hold its session in Amritsar. As Mahatma Gandhi had not visited Punjab anytime before, he took train to Punjab to reach before 6th April national strike, however after 30th March Delhi protests, he was not even allowed to enter Delhi and was stopped at Palwal and sent back. 
 
Disturbances in Amritsar and Punjab took sharp turn. 9th April was Ram Naumi day in 1919, Dr. Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew were two popular congress leaders of Punjab. With their influence Ram Naumi this year was celebrated by Hindus and Muslims jointly. This frightened British rulers as Hindu Muslim unity was earlier shown in 1857 and then in 1915 Ghadar movement. Both Dr. Satya Pal and Dr.Saifuddin Kitchlew(A Cashmere settled in Amritsar) were arrested by deceit on 10th April, they were invited for talks at Deputy Commissioner and were arrested and sent out of Punjab to some undisclosed location.
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This angered the general public. There were clashes with police on 11th April. One British lady Sherwood was attacked as some male British officials. Sherwood was rescued, but few other British officers were killed. Protest meetings were called and 25 people died protesting on Bhadari bridge.On 13th April, a public meeting was called at 4.30 pm in Jallianwala Bagh, a common meeting place for citizenery. While General Dyer had moved from Jalandhar to Amritsar a day earlier with support from Michael O’Dwyer, Lieutenant Governor of Punjab.
 
General Dyer took his forces to Jallianwala Bagh with only a narrow exit and without any warning to disperse, started firing incessantly on people directly. In ten minutes, 1650 rounds of firing were done and hundreds of people were turned into dead bodies in few minutes. No medical aid was provided, many people could have been saved, but the terror in whole city was such that during whole night of 13th April,people kept dyeing without water, medical aid. Only next morning people could reach the Bagh and render help to dead and half dead bodies there. Bhagat Singh visited Bagh next day and got one jar filled with blood-soaked sand of the Bagh, which is still preserved in Khatkar Kalan memorial museum in Bhagat Singh’s ancestral village. 
 
The details of tragedy are being relived in pages of The Tribune and many other papers after hundred years. Martial law was clamped all over Punjab by 15th April and General Dyer ordered crawling of citizens crossing the narrow lane in Amritsar, where lady Sherwood was attacked and rescued. Thousands of men, women, old and children were made to crawl for many yards and were flogged as well in that street for many days. In many other cities like Gujranwala, Lahore and other places massive repression took place.
 
Poets and writers expressed the anguish of people in their writings, many of which were banned. Subhadra Kumari Chauhan, Nanak Singh, Feroz Din Sharaf and many more poets and writers expressed their anguish. Nanak Singh, who was in his twenties at that time, was in Bagh for the meeting and was lying under dead bodies, got escaped next day and aptly titled his poem Khuni Baisakhi (Bloody Baisakhi), written after a year, which was banned and has now been translated in English by his grandson Navdeep Suri.

Mahatma Gandhi withdrew his Satyagraha by 19th April. Tagore renounced his knighthood given by British colonialists. People suffered for months together and generations suffered the memories of tragedy and still suffer.
 
Many questions arise, when celebrating the centenary of such monumental tragedy. Such tragedies are norm of colonial rulers and not exception. Much worse atrocities took place in Mau Mau movement of Kenya five decades later between 1952 to 1959. Assessment of killings vary from official 11000 to three million in anther extreme. Moderate assessment is of 25000 killings.
 
In Jallianwala Bagh official number in 379, but Congress report number is about one thousand. Ram Singh Majithia in his two-volume book in Punjabi published in sixties listed nearly 460 deaths, he even put the names and break up of Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims killed jointly during the firing. Lately Amritsar district administration have collected names of 500+ victims of massacre. British colonial administration started paying pittance of compensation after a gap of more than one year, many families never approached out of fear or lack of information. Compensation was largely paid from fifty rupees to few hundred rupees in large number of cases, whereas only in one case perhaps one lakh plus rupees were paid as compensation. The value of human life was counted as per class of the persons, poor people’s deaths were paid in just few hundred bucks, richer people’s deaths earned bit more.
 
When there is talk of apology, present British rulers feared the demand for compensation will arise with apology. And why should the demand not arise? Few years ago, a British court has ruled British Government to pay millions of pounds to survivors or decedents of Mau Mau movement. Why Jallianwala Bagh be treated differently, successors of colonial rulers must be made to pay for their systemic crimes.

Colonialism was a system approved by successive Parliaments of Britain and continuity demands the compensation from present rulers as well Rulers don’t pay from their pockets, they pay from public funds and Britan as colonial power had squeezed Asian and African colonised countries ruthlessly to enrich British ruling classes or British bourgeoise , a part of return of colonial loot is totally justifiable and just action, as done by a British court.  

Vice-President M Venkaiah Naidu visits Jallianwala Bagh memorial on commemoration of 100 years of the massacre 

  
But do the Indian ruling classes have the guts to ask for compensation for British colonial crimes? Indian ruling classes don’t give much importance to Jallianwala Bagh historic tragedy as supreme symbol of Indian freedom struggle, otherwise how come that for centenary celebrations, head of the state - President of India is not going there. Sending Vice President for the centenary function is just undermining, even disrespecting the significance of the monumental tragedy.
 
Not only that, Indian ruling classes are following British colonial practices, a ban has been imposed in Amritsar and Jallianwala Bagh for the free movement of people to pay homage to martyrs of Jallianwala Bagh. Many peasant, workers, student and youth organisations have planned marches to Jalliawala Bagh monument, which has been put to restrictions. Tragedy of people has been turned into celebration of VIP’s. And further more, Indian ruling classes are continuing with such oppressive laws as Rowlatt act after a hundred years of the tragedy.

Congress President Rahul Gandhi paying tributes at the Jallianwala Bagh Memorial in Amritsar
   
British colonialism was forced to withdraw that act in three years. Rowlatt act was withdrawn by 1922, but what about DIR, MISA, UAPA and AFPSA continuing for decades in ‘desi’ rulers ruled India. Was not Bhagat Singh correct in observing that it hardly makes any difference if Purshottam Das Thakkar or Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru become Viceroys in place of Lord Reading or Lord Irwin, if the system of oppression and exploitation continues and who can say that system of exploitation and oppression has ended with British rule.
 
Worse still the communal cauldron is made to burn, a Lok Sabha candidate Kanhaiya Kumar has alleged that RSS/BJP is trying to stoke Hindu-Muslim riots in 2019 Ram Naumi falling during elections and you see 1919 April Ram Naumi celebrated jointly by Hindus and Muslims in fervour. Muslim even served sweet water to their Hindu brethren during the festival. Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satya Pal were the symbols of Hindu-Muslim unity and brotherhood during national movement and that unity and brotherhood is put to danger by so called ‘nationalists’ of 2019!
 -----------
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Have we really learned lessons from - Jallianwala Bagh - the monumental tragedy! Meanwhile our ‘Desi’ rulers continue with communal massacres of bigger scale than Jallianwala Bagh massacres;  #Delhi1984, #Gujarat2002, #3LakhPeasantSucides in 21st century and of course British rulers must apologise and compensate for Jallianwala Bagh, but our ‘Desi’ rulers are free to commit any atrocities on our people! After all they are ‘Desi’ - free India rulers, why should they apologise or compensate?!
 
 
Chaman Lal is a retired Professor from JNU. - prof.chaman@gmail.com
 
 
 

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